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Iron Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings

  • There are many areas of uncertainty regarding iron supplementation of infants.
    - Pediatr Clin North Am 2001 Apr;48(2):401-13 -- Iron and breastfeeding. -- Griffin IJ, Abrams SA.

  • Negative effects of iron supplementation on indices of zinc and copper status and of zinc supplementation on iron and copper status have been reported.
    - Br J Nutr 2001 May;85 Suppl 2:S181-5 -- Micronutrient interactions: effects on absorption and bioavailability. -- Sandstrom B.

  • Ascorbic acid has a strong iron absorption promoting potential.
    - Br J Nutr 2001 May;85 Suppl 2:S181-5 -- Micronutrient interactions: effects on absorption and bioavailability. -- Sandstrom B.

  • A high level of iron is associated with unfavorable outcome in pregnancy. The rationale of routine iron supplementation in non-anaemic women needs to be re-examined.
    - Hum Reprod 2000 Aug;15(8):1843-8 -- Third trimester iron status and pregnancy outcome in non-anaemic women; pregnancy unfavourably affected by maternal iron excess. -- Lao TT, Tam KF, Chan LY.

  • - Br J Clin Pharmacol 1991 Mar;31(3):251-5 -- Iron supplements: a common cause of drug interactions. -- Campbell NR, Hasinoff BB. Concurrent ingestion of iron causes marked decreases in the bioavailability of a number of drugs. The affected drugs, tetracycline, tetracycline derivatives (doxycycline, methacycline and oxytetracycline), penicillamine, methyldopa, levodopa, carbidopa and ciprofloxacin have diverse chemical structures and clinical effects.

  • Fruit juices are nutritious and popular drinks for infants and children and are known to contain Fe (iron) uptake inhibitors (e.g., polyphenolic compounds). The red grape juice and prune juice had profound inhibitory effects on iron bioavailability. The results suggest that individuals in need of optimal Fe absorption should avoid red grape and prune juice or at least vary the types of juices consumed.
    - J Agric Food Chem 2002 Nov 6;50(23):6935-8 -- Red grape juice inhibits iron availability: application of an in vitro digestion/caco-2 cell model. -- Boato F, Wortley GM, Liu RH, Glahn RP.

Nutrient Values
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  • Nutrition Information

  • last update: February 2014

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