An oral micronized progesterone preparation has improved bioavailability and fewer reported side effects compared with synthetic progestins.
- Am Fam Physician 2000 Oct 15;62(8):1839-46, 1849-50 -- Using progestins in clinical practice. -- Apgar BS, Greenberg G.
Adolescent females who are overweight at the initiation of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) may be more likely to have significant weight gain during the first year of use.
- J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2002 Apr;15(2):79-82 -- Overweight teens at increased risk for weight gain while using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate. -- Mangan SA, Larsen PG, Hudson S.
The nor-testosterone-derived progestogens can have adverse effects on skin, lipids, vasculature and insulin resistance. Negative mood effects are produced by most progestogens due to the effect on neurotransmitters via central nervous system progesterone receptors.
- Hum Reprod Update 1997 Mar-Apr;3(2):159-71 -- Progestogen intolerance and compliance with hormone replacement therapy in menopausal women. -- Panay N, Studd J.
Progesterone could antagonize the effects of digoxin or digitoxin in luteal cells.
- J Cell Biochem 2002;86(1):107-17 -- Progesterone attenuates the inhibitory effects of cardiotonic digitalis on pregnenolone production in rat luteal cells. -- Chen JJ, Chien EJ, Wang PS.
There was a significant increase in serum sodium and chloride but significant decrease in serum potassium and bicarbonate level in women taking oral contraceptive. There was non-significant decrease in serum electrolytes in women taking injectable contraceptives. There was significant increase in weight and blood pressure of women taking these contraceptives.
- J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2001 Oct-Dec;13(4):27-9 -- Effect of oral and injectable contraceptives on serum electrolytes, weight and blood pressure. -- Hameed A, Majeed T, Rauf S, Ashraf, Nasrullah.
The Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study provides evidence that Prempro (Premarin/ medroxyprogesterone acetate) should not be given to someone who already has heart disease without careful monitoring.
- Prev Cardiol 2000 Winter;3(1):21-23 -- Hormone replacement therapy (estrogen and progesterone): is it necessary for heart disease prevention? -- Freeman R. Oral estrogens and transdermal estrogens may act differently on coagulation factors and lipids.
Hormone Replacement Therapy Side Effects